Overview of Internal Combustion Engines

Internal combustion engines burn fuel inside of them. In a car engine, this fuel is generally gasoline. The gasoline is ignited, the fuel releases energy and the energy moves the car.

This is by far the most common method by which an internal combustion engine works, but there are other methods. For example, diesel engines and gas turbine engines function slightly differently. We’ll get more into that later.

Just know that the reason internal combustion engines have been all the rage for so long is that they’re so efficient; a relatively small engine and use a relatively small amount of fuel to create rapid motion in large, heavy machines.

spark ignitionInternal combustion engines can be sorted into many different categories: spark ignition engines run off of petrol or gasoline, while compression ignition engines run off of diesel. These engines can each be further characterized into 2-stroke or 4-stroke engines. Then there are rotary and reciprocating engines. Rotary engines involve a rotor that rotates inside the engine to produce power. Reciprocating engines have a piston that reciprocate within a cylinder. The reciprocating motion of the piston is then converted into the rotary motion of the vehicles wheels, allowing them to spin and the car to move. Automobiles generally use reciprocating engines, which are the most common type of engines.

So to double back, reciprocating engines are those that can be classified into two types, the afore mentioned spark ignition and compression ignition engines. “Reciprocating engine” has actually become synonymous with internal combustion engines.

Spark ignition engines burn fuel by generating a spark with the spark plug located in the cylinder head of the engine.

Compression ignition engines burn fuel by exerting high amounts of pressure on the fuel. Once the pressure exceeds a certain point, the fuel begins to burn. This is easiest to perform on diesel engines.

Now for the difference between two stroke and four stroke engines: if an engine is “two-stroke” it implies that for every two strokes of the piston inside the cylinder, the fuel is burnt. In other words, for every single rotation of the wheel, the fuel burns. Four-stroke engines burn fuel of revery four strokes of the piston inside the cylinder, meaning that each time the fuel is burnt there are two rotations of the wheels of the vehicle. Think of the stroke as the distance traveled by the piston inside the cylinder i.e. the length of the cylinder.

compression ignitionAs you would assume, a 4-stroke engine is more fuel efficient than a 2-stroke engine because it rotates the vehicle’s wheels twice for every time the 2-stroke engine rotates the wheels once. However, 4-stroke engines are never actually twice as fuel efficient as 2-stroke engines; generally there are other hiccups along the way when it comes to combusting the fuel and converting that energy into movement that don’t enable perfect efficiency in 4-strokes, but it’s still better than 2-stroke.

That’s all for now, hope you enjoyed learning about internal combustion engines and feel free to comment!

Hackers Find Way to Remotely Control Jeep Cherokee

In July of 2015, one reporter from Wired magazine signed up for a risky ride that he knew would spiral out of his control, even as he kept his position behind the wheel of a Jeep Cherokee.

The plan was for writer Andy Greenberg to drive along a St. Louis highway and wait for hackers Charlie Miller and Chris Valasek to take control of the car’s stereo, air conditioning, windshield wipers, transmission, and brakes from their house, 10 miles away.

Miller and Valasek had recently discovered a zero-day hacking technique that gave hackers control of any Jeep Cherokee on the road using the Jeep Cherokee’s built-in internet connection. Using their technique, Miller and Valasek can control a vehicle’s dashboard functions, steering, brakes, and transmission.

Stealing online information

Stealing online information

Greenberg was brave enough to embark on his doomed journey without knowing exactly what the hackers had in store for him. He knew only that they wouldn’t do anything life threatening. Still, they duly reminded him, “no matter what happens, don’t panic.”

As planned, the second Greenberg pulled onto the highway, the Cherokee started to misbehave. A picture of the two hackers in their signature track suits appeared on the car’s virtual display, the air conditioning started blasting cold air, and the radio started blasting music from a local hip hop station. The dashboard did not respond to any of the poor author’s attempts to adjust settings to a normal level.

That’s when the hackers cut his transmission. Greenberg began to fight off the panic that the hackers warned him against as the Jeep Cherokee slowed to a crawl on a freeway overpass. A line of cars began to accumulate behind Greenberg and honk at him angrily. As the highway began to slope upward, it seemed Greenberg had not only stopping to worry about, but actively falling backwards.

At this point Greenberg tapped out; he begged the hackers to stop, and accordingly they relinquished control over the car. The experiment was over.

Greenberg, Miller and Valasek had all met two year prior when Greenberg bravely volunteered to drive a hacked Ford Escape and a Toyota Prius through South Bend, Indiana. For that run, the hackers hacked from the backseat with their laptops and laughed at Greenberg as they took over the steering wheel and jerked his seatbelt around. In that experiment, the hackers at least had to be present in the car, where they needed to wire into the vehicle’s onboard diagnostic port to do any real hacking.

jeep cherokeeNow, only two years later, they can do some real damage over the Internet. The two have since shared their findings at the Black Hat security conference in Las Vegas. Their discoveries have prompted sponsorship of an automotive security bill that will heighten the security standards for cars and trucks equipped with online capabilities.

In the midst of this terrorist-activity-riddled era, this legislation is more necessary than ever. After all, Miller and Valasek could fully kill the engine, abruptly engage the brakes, disable the brakes, and hijack the wheel when the vehicle is in reverse. The potential for harm that could be done with these capabilities is immeasurable.

The Physics Behind Your Car Brakes

You may not have ever taken the time to really wonder how your car brakes work, but I’m sure if they ever broke you’d realized that you never fully appreciated them. Someone takes the time to think about the best way and most reliable way to engineer your car’s stopping abilities; let’s see how they figured it out.

First of all, it’s important to keep in mind the obvious fact that, when you press down on your brakes, you’re not actually transmitting the force necessary to slow down the huge hunk of metal traveling at high speeds down a freeway that is your car.

When you push down on your brake pedal, your car transmits that force to its brakes by using something called brake fluid. It multiplies the force you transmit through mechanical advantage and hydraulic force multiplication.

We can’t go much further than this without first going over the concepts of leverage, hydraulics, and friction.

Leverage is easier shown than verbally explained, so here’s a simple graph:


Because the right side of the lever is half as long as the left side of the lever, the right end of the lever has a potential force twice that of the left side. This force is enacted via half the distance that the left end moves.

The hydraulic system is perhaps simpler to explain. Force at once point is transmitted into force at another through the use of an incompressible fluid. A piston is pressed down into a cylinder of liquid which is connected to another cylinder through a tube that also contains liquid. The downward force of the piston in the first cylinder transmits to upwards force in the second cylinder as it fills up. Oil is almost always the kind of liquid used for this sort of thing.

So long as an incompressible fluid is used, this is a very efficient way of transmitting force; almost no force is lost between the movement of the first piston and the movement of the second. Another big benefit of hydraulic systems  is that the pipe connecting the cylinders does not have to be straight; it can loop around so it fits wherever so long as the connection between the two cylinders isn’t disrupted.

The pipe can also fork, so that one cylinder can transmit force to multiple cylinders. This is the aspect of hydraulic systems that makes force multiplication and division possible. To multiply or divide force, all you need to do is change the size of one piston and cylinder relative to another.

hydraulic systemIf one cylinder is larger than the other, when downward force is applied to the smaller cylinder, upward force will in turn be created in the larger that is greater to the extent that the larger is larger. This may seem like it doesn’t quite add up, but keep in mind that the smaller one will still need to be depressed a lot to raise the larger one a little.

This discrepancy in force is how you can hit the brakes with your puny legs and slow down a car that weighs thousands of pounds!

Gadgets Any Modern Traveler Needs to Stay Safe

Traveling is one of the most exhilarating, eye-opening experiences out there. However, it is not without its disadvantages; traveling through unfamiliar places can be dangerous for the unprepared, and amateur travelers are easily spotted by thieves and con artists. Luckily, the modern era has yielded some new devices to help safeguard the vulnerable traveler. The following devices aren’t just cool; they’re a legitimate investment in any traveler’s safety.led road flares

LED Road Flares

If you’re planning on covering a large distance on your trip and you’ll be in a vehicle that is less than reliable, it makes a lot of sense to invest in some state-of-the-art safety equipment. If your car breaks down or you get in an accident at night, it could legitimately save your life to bring the right gear.

Namely, electronic road flares that can help other drivers know exactly where your vehicle is and help police and roadside assistance to find you. The Aervoe LED road flare has a rechargeable battery, can flash for up to 60 hours and can be seen for up to half a mile. That’s a huge improvement on combustible flares, which were one-use, released toxic chemicals and only lasted half an hour.

Bluetooth Headset

Although this piece of technology is closely associated with the corporate world, travelers have a real use for it as well. Given that it’s illegal to use handheld devices while driving in a wide variety of states, it’s dangerous to take your eyes off the road, any road trip is going to put you at perilous odds in the driving-accident numbers game.

This wireless headset allows you to communicate with your phone regarding making and receiving calls. If you get a newer model, you can even have your text messages read to you or check your phone’s battery.

That’s not only useful to drivers; having a headset means if you’re ever in a situation where you want to have your hands free and your technology safely tucked away, you can be prepared.satellite phone

Satellite Phones

This is a must-have for those travelers interested in exploring extremely rural or out-of-the way areas. Opt into service providers like Iridium, Globalstar and Thurya to access coverage basically anywhere in the world; because your coverage derives from satellites as opposed to earthbound tower antennas, you’ll be paying for the peace of mind that comes with knowing you can always call for help if you need it.

Water Filters

Depending on where you’re traveling, bringing a portable water filter can be the difference between seeing the world and staring at the inside of a bathroom stall. Do a little research to figure out exactly what you’re going to need; buy a LifeStraw if you think you’ll be sipping water directly out of rivers, or invest in a SteriPen Traveler if you want to disinfect water one cup at a time via ultraviolet light. There are also pump-activated and gravity-powered water filters that allow you to store more filtered water at once.


Automobile Industry:

Automobile industry plays a very vital role in many ways. It is a huge industry and it has evolved and transformed tremendously over the decades rather centuries. The first vehicles were designed primarily as horse-free carriages in the United States of America towards the end of 18th century and just before the beginning of 19th century. That is when the revolution in using automobiles started and they were manufactured predominantly by the USA like almost 90% of the entire automobile carriages in those days.

Those were the times when automobiles were considered as a luxury and hence only a very elite few would possess them. Later on, other big players like China, Japan, France, Germany emerged turning the tables of the entire automobile production industry. Automobiles come in various forms, makes, colours, fuels and speed. Over the years due to the great evolution in the automobile industry, many new forms and companies have emerged thereby creating a lot of competition globally. Because of this enormous transformation in the automobile industry as well as the great evolution of technology, having a vehicle is no longer a luxury and every single family have it now.

Manufacture and production:

The federation based in Paris namely “International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturersor popularly called as “Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d’Automobiles” in French, is a head organization that facilitates communication and co-ordination between the automotive or the automobile manufacturing and producing countries. This organization also conducts the global auto shows to showcase the new production lines. Some of the countries that arrange auto shows every year are the USA, the UK, India, China, Japan, Italy, Thailand, Russia, Germany, South Korea, Switzerland, Netherlands, Brazil and Belgium. These are the major players in the manufacture of automobiles as well as their parts.

Types of automobiles:

There are many different types of automobiles such Bikes, Motorcycles, Autos or three wheelers, other passenger vehicles like such passenger cars, light commercial vehicles (LCV) to carry goods, Heavy trucks (HCV – Heavy Commercial Vehicles) to carry very heavy goods and materials, Buses and coaches to carry passengers as well as trains. All these vehicles come in different types, ranges, colours, makes as well as weight. They also come with engines that support many different fuel types such as Petrol, Diesel, CNG, Electric, as well as Gasoline. All these automobiles that are currently available in the market are come with latest technology, safety and security features and in various ranges.

Major players in the automobile industry:

The main global players in manufacturing automotive vehicles are the Toyota Motor Corporation, Honda Motor Company, Nissan, Suzuki Motor Corporation from Japan, The general Motors Company, Ford Motor Company, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles from USA, Volkswagen Group AG from Germany, Hyundai Motor Group from South Korea and PSA Peugeot Citroën SA from France. Of course there are other major players like BMW, Mercedes Benz, KIA, Renault, Jaguar, Isuzu etc., in various ranges and types. Automobiles are no longer considered as luxury but they have become a necessity and an everyday need for all.

Best Kia optima leases, incentives and prices

KIA is the best car lease and rental for a new vehicle that provides services to the customers for buying cars at the low interest rates. KIA Optima lease offers an excellent opportunity to the customers to find their best vehicle with the possible rates and the best monthly deals. This car deals are the auto leasing method that allow the user to pay lowest monthly rentals of the monthly payments at their homes. There are enormous collection of cars are available which is developed by well manufacturers and also contains all model cars at the affordable rates. However they provide an online facility to the customers to access via online for booking and buying cars easily.


A KIO car deal is one of the leading auto brokers in Los Angeles that provides excellent deals and prices to the visitors every day. This will makes the customer to be happy for buying cars in these dealers and also save their precious time as well. If you have any queries they will support you via online at any time by their technical support team and makes secure relationship with the customers. However you can lease the cars by Kia deals feature and its services with the low interest financing of any model and settle the amount of low monthly payments. The great benefit of Kia is to provide bonus cash and rebates for the different kind of model and offers the visitor to buy the stylish new vehicles of all the models.

How to Hire a Reputed Transportation Service Provider?

You love your car and have customized it as per your liking. This is one of the most valuable possessions for you. When you are relocating to another city, it is your prime concern as how to transport it? If the distance is too long, then there are safety risks involved and endless driving will make you tired. That is why it is always advisable to hire the services of a reliable and experienced transport service provider. They will save you from all the stress you may face by driving. Let us find out other important points you need to know in order to make sure that the chosen service provider is genuine.


A reputed company has a long list of satisfied clients and has an extensive experience. Due to their experience they are able to provide efficient services to their customers whenever and wherever they need. The customer base is the most important factor and this tells a lot about the reliability of the service provider. On the other hand, they provide attractive rates for these services. They also offer discounts on multiple car transport and this will enable you to avail cost effective services.

Payment Options

It is imperative on your part to opt for those transportation services which are open to different kinds of payment methods. Make sure they accept payment from personal cheques, cashier cheques and accept credit cards. They are also supposed to allow other methods like cash on delivery and money orders.

Timely Transportation

The time taken in transporting a vehicle may vary as it depends on several things. It starts from the time they pick up the vehicle and approximately it takes around 7 to 15 days to reach to the destination. It also depends on the route they take while transporting to the desired location.

Experienced transportation services are essential to complete the entire process in a convenient and efficient manner. They have their well proven methods to follow from the starting of the process to the delivery of your car. They provide transport quotes on the phone and online also. The best part is that their system is convenient and equipped with customer friendly options. After they pick up your car you can always find out its current location by using the online tracking system. This will analyze and tell as how much time they will take to travel the distance?

Multiple Vehicles

If you are shifting to another city with your family, then it is essential for you to look for efficient transportation services. They will transport multiple cars at discounted rates. Reputed service providers offer various plans on transporting more than one car.


This is the most important part of hiring a reputed transportation company. You can ask them about their license and the permission they have from the state department to offer these services to the general public. Find out whether they are registered with the concerned state authority or not. There are many advantages of taking services from reputed companies like they provide a complete inspection of the vehicle and door to door transportation service. In case of any problem, they also provide insurance coverage.

Best ABS Techno Cars In Launched In The World

Have you been looking for some information about Best ABS techno cars in launched in the world? Worry less more. Herein is a short but a very informative article on the same. Well, this year, the edition of classic world techno-classic a has come into the hot stage after being officially opened by some professional visitors early this year. More than 2500 exhibitors across the continent booked and presented themselves for a wonderful exhibition. In fact, more than 220 classic clubs and various communities of interests made the 2014 TECHNO-CLASSICA one of the world greatest meeting of vintage cars and the current young timer scene. Actually, TECHNO-CLASSICA has set a trend of vintage cars scene year in year out and has become the most crucial meeting as well as market place for international classic scenes. Some of the brands of cars that were launched this year includes the following



This is a new Italian-designed car. Its body of manufacturing is Zagato manufacturers, an oldest company which was started back in 1919 and still in existence up to today. On its 95th birthday this year, the company presented the Halle 6 legendary creation of Zagato on basis of Ferrari, Aston Martin, Alfa Romeo and Maserati among others. These cars are now included in the renting vehicles for the top business associates by big organizations.


This brand this year is celebrating 100 years of its existence with the trident. For the very first time, this brand will be presented with the official company stand. It will be fascinating with the new as well as the historical Maserati sports car.


This is appearing 3rd time in the cars alliance. It was originally a British brand. It is presenting itself for the very first time in TECHNO-CLASSICA having a stand. It is laid out by AC Europe distribution formula automobiles.


• This year, Mercedes Benz continues with its traditions of spectacular historical presentation at the TECHNO-CLASSICA. For the 2014, it is under; MAGIC MOMENTS-120 YEARS MOTOR SPORT as the main title.
• It is showing a total of 13grand prixi cars, 4 rally cars and also 4 special vehicles. This vehicles ranges from the racing transporter all the way to F1 safety car.
• The Mercedes Benz clubs (17 German club) except cross country car club, the classic Centre and also some Mercedes Benz classic partnership enterprises presented themselves.



Since it took over as a brand of Rover group BMW in 1994, The NEW MINI recalls to the greatest and highest success of the old Mini brand on the sensational season of rally.

To conclude, it has been a tradition that the TECHNO CLASSICA is being used by a lot of communities and several classic clubs with interest to show themselves off as well as their performance to the expected number of up to 200,000 visitors annually. With up to 200 plus presentations, they normally make world fair enough for vintage, prestige, classic, restorations, motorcycles, motor sports as well as the spare parts world club meeting to the world greatest forum. Many of them has been participating since late 1980s.

Bio Fuel Cars For A Revolutionary Change

For long the huge petroleum deposits have always rendered diesel and gasoline cheap while making biofuels forgotten, however with the increasing oil prices in the recent times together with growing concerns of the effects of carbon emissions on global warming, biofuels have been enjoying an increasing popularity. This has seen the rise of biofuel cars to bring a revolutionary change.

fuel1What are biofuels?

1. The biofuels are derivates of plants such as corn, sugarcane, wheat, sorghum, rapeseed, and beet. The biofuels that the new revolutionary cars use are found in forms of ethanol or biodiesel.

2. In Brazil half of the country’s sugarcane crop is used as biofuel while in North America, ethanol refiners’ use around 40 percent of the country’s corn crop.

3. In Europe the biodiesel industry uses 60 percent of rapeseed crop produced in the entire continent; this is majorly used to power biofuel cars which are increasingly becoming popular.

What are biofuel cars?

1. Biofuel cars are models which are designed where the engine uses biodiesel to run. Some engines have been designed to run 100% on biodiesel while others have to run on 50% blend of biodiesel. Some conventional engines can also be converted to accommodate or run on biofuels although it has been found to be very expensive.

2. Several carmakers have made cars which are compatible to use biodiesel either fully or as blend, however, not all have made an official approval of the same.

3. Companies that have cars that can run on biodiesel include; Chevrolet, Audi, DaimlerChrysler, Ford, BMW, Land Rover, General Motors, Mazda, Isuzu, Mercedes, Nissan, Toyota, Mitsubishi, Peugeot, Volvo, Volkswagen and Saab. These companies have approved all their cars produced between 1996 and 2004 to run on 100% biodiesel.

4. Companies with cars that can use ethanol are DaimlerChrysler, General Motors, Nissan, Isuzu, Mercedes, Mazda and Mercury.

Reasons and direction of the revolution

• Cars have been blamed for being the major source of atmospheric carbon dioxide, which has been blamed for being the main cause of global warming. The argument for the use of biofuels has been that since plants absorb carbon dioxide as they synthesis, crops grown for biofuel production will absorb all the carbon dioxide emitted by the cars as they burn these fuels. The revolution has also favoured the use of biofuels on grounds that unlike oil reserves, biofuels are renewable since more crops can be grown to produce the fuels.

• The expansion of the biofuel revolution gets support from government targets and subsidies that seek to trim down use of fossil fuels, cut on oil import and ultimately meet carbon diminution goals.

• There have been plans to use grasses and saplings to produce biofuels in the future. This is because these both contain more cellulose compared to crops currently being used for biofuels production. If it will be possible to turn the cellulose to biofuels, it will be more efficient than the current ones and it will emit less carbon dioxide.

fuel2The need to reduce carbon emission and find alternate source of fuels for cars has led to a revolution of biofuels. This has forced many people to shift to cars that use biofuels to be in line with the revolution.